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Structured Logging with Events

Gradle setup

compile group: "org.http4k", name: "http4k-core", version: "3.255.0"
compile group: "org.http4k", name: "http4k-format-jackson", version: "3.255.0"

In order to leverage modern log aggregation platforms, we should move away from logging arbitrary strings into the StdOut of our applications, and move towards Structured Logging instead, which allows us to treat logs as data which can be mined to give us better observability of our systems. This also encourages the move for developers to think about which events happening in your apps are actually important and what data is appropriate to be attached to each one.

http4k supports Structured Logging using a simple yet powerful concept - an Event is simply a marker interface that can be attached to any class, which we then send to an instance of Events (a "sink" for sending Event instances to). As with the HttpHandler, Events is just a typealias of (Event) -> Unit, and similarly to the HttpHandler, an Event can be transformed or decorated with metadata using an EventFilter (modelled as (Events) -> Events)).

Support for leveraging auto "object to JSON" transformational capabilities is included for the libraries that have it (eg. Jackson and GSON). This allows custom Json instances to be used (for instance) to avoid PII information being spat out to log aggregation platforms where they could be masked using the configuration of the JSON renderer.

Attaching metadata to an Event results in (compactified) JSON similar to this:

{
  "event": {
    "uri": "/path1",
    "status": 200,
    "duration": 16
  },
  "metadata": {
    "timestamp": "2019-11-05T17:32:27.297448Z",
    "traces": {
      "traceId": "e35304c95b704c7d",
      "spanId": "0e46f7b3cb5bcf2e",
      "parentSpanId": null,
      "samplingDecision": "1"
    },
    "requestCount": 1234
  }
}

In harmony with the ethos of http4k there is no need to bring in a custom logging library such as SL4J, although they would be very simple to integrate if required by implementing a custom Events instance.

The example below shows a simple application that outputs structured logs to StdOut which can be analysed by an aggregator, along with the attachment of extra Event metadata via a custom EventFilter.

Code

package cookbook.structured_logging_with_events

import org.http4k.core.HttpHandler
import org.http4k.core.Method.GET
import org.http4k.core.Request
import org.http4k.core.Response
import org.http4k.core.Status.Companion.OK
import org.http4k.core.Uri
import org.http4k.core.then
import org.http4k.events.AutoJsonEvents
import org.http4k.events.Event
import org.http4k.events.EventFilter
import org.http4k.events.EventFilters
import org.http4k.events.plus
import org.http4k.events.then
import org.http4k.filter.ResponseFilters
import org.http4k.format.Jackson

fun main() {
    // Stack filters for Events in the same way as HttpHandlers to transform or add metadata to the Events.
    // We use AutoJsonEvents (here with Jackson) to handle the final serialisation process.
    val events =
        EventFilters.AddTimestamp()
            .then(EventFilters.AddZipkinTraces())
            .then(AddRequestCount())
            .then(AutoJsonEvents(Jackson))

    val app: HttpHandler = { _: Request -> Response(OK).body("hello") }

    val appWithEvents =
        ResponseFilters.ReportHttpTransaction {
            // to "emit" an event, just invoke() the Events!
            events(IncomingHttpRequest(it.request.uri, it.response.status.code, it.duration.toMillis()))
        }.then(app)

    appWithEvents(Request(GET, "/path1"))
    appWithEvents(Request(GET, "/path2"))
}

// this is our custom event which will be printed in a structured way
data class IncomingHttpRequest(val uri: Uri, val status: Int, val duration: Long) : Event

// here is a new EventFilter that adds custom metadata to the emitted events
fun AddRequestCount(): EventFilter {
    var requestCount = 0
    return EventFilter { next ->
        {
            next(it + ("requestCount" to requestCount++))
        }
    }
}